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Citing Sources: HPE Citations

A guide to citing sources designed and created by Clark Librarians

Health & Physical Education (HPE) Citations

General format for HPE citations:

  1. Author: 
  2. Title:
  3. Location: 
  4. Date: 
  5. URL: 

It's important to give credit to other people for their words and ideas. Here are the things you need to find for your HPE citations:

  1. Author: This may be one person, several people, or an organization. There also may be no author listed—that’s okay, just write "no author".
  2. Title: What is the title of your source? This could be the title of an article on a website, of a chapter in a book, the name of a video, etc. Usually the title is at the top or beginning of a page.
  3. Location: What is the name of the website or publication (book, newspaper, magazine, journal, etc.) you found your source in? Often the name of the website or journal is at the very top of the page, near a logo.
  4. Date: When was the source published? Usually this information is found at the very top or bottom. If there is no specific day or month for an online article, you can use the copyright date at the bottom of the website. If there is no date listed, write “no date”.
  5. URL: If you viewed your source online (even if you printed it), include a hyperlinked URL for the exact page you used. You should be able to click on this link and see exactly what you read or watched! When you use library databases, look for a permalink or DOI (Digital Object Identifier) before using the URL from the address bar. 

Example citation:

  1. Author: Sara Kiley Watson
  2. Title: After High School, Young Women's Exercise Rates Plunge
  3. Location: National Public Radio (NPR)
  4. Date: June 11, 2018
  5. URL:

Need help finding information for your citation? Ask a Librarian!

In-text citations:

For an in-text citation, include the author’s name and date. If there is no author, use the title. If there is no date, use no date. For example:

  • Sara Kiley Watson reports that the number of young women who exercise drops from 78% to 62% after high school (2018). This drop depends on income, however: “around 80 percent of young women in the highest income bracket in [Wong’s] study were active even after their high school years, compared with 45 to 55 percent of the women below the poverty line” (Watson, 2018).
  • In the United States, almost one million people have multiple sclerosis (How Many People Live with MS?, no date).

Other Citation Styles

Remember, other classes use different citation styles, so check out the library’s Citation Research Guide for help with MLA, APA, and more!

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